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Preliminary study on the development of domestic assembly-type construction industry
policies and regulations
For a long time, China's construction industry has always been a labor-intensive industry. The traditional construction methods based on on-site pouring are far from the requirements related to the modernization of the construction industry. After entering the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", especially in recent years, China's demographic dividend has gradually disappeared, and the problem of "labor shortage" in the construction industry has become increasingly severe. In addition, the sustainable development requirements of "four sections and one environmental protection" have also put pressure on the construction industry. These changes are forcing the domestic traditional construction industry to seek a path of transformation and development. As an important form of modernization of the construction industry, prefabricated buildings have become an important breakthrough in the transformation of the domestic construction industry.
Prefabricated building industry development policy, market environment analysis
The so-called prefabricated building refers to a building assembled on the construction site with prefabricated components.
In accordance with the requirements of promoting the structural reform of the supply side and the development of new urbanization, the current state-of-the-art promotion is mainly composed of two types of building structures: fabricated steel structure and fabricated concrete structure.
At the end of September 2016, the "Guiding Opinions on Vigorously Developing Prefabricated Buildings" issued by the General Office of the State Council （Guo Ban Fa  No. 71） proposed to use the proportion of prefabricated buildings to occupy new construction area in about 10 years. It has reached 30%. At the same time, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and other cities with a permanent population of more than 3 million are the key areas for promotion. According to this standard, provincial capital cities and some third-tier cities are all within the key promotion areas. In March 2017, the "13th Five-Year" Prefabricated Building Action Plan issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development clearly stated that by 2020, the proportion of new-scale buildings in the country will reach more than 15%, of which the key areas will reach more than 20%. .
With the continuous promulgation of relevant policies at the national level, many provinces and municipalities have also introduced the implementation plans or guidance of prefabricated buildings. More and more market entities have begun to join the construction army of assembly buildings. According to the data, during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, there were 13 comprehensive pilot cities for industrialization of buildings （residential） in the country （including two industrial parks）， and 57 assembly-type construction base enterprises were cultivated. The prefabricated building area completed by the pilot cities and base enterprises accounted for more than 85% of the national total, which prompted the assembly-type construction industry to make important progress in design level, material research and development, and construction technology. Under the dual promotion of the market and the government, it is expected that the domestic assembly-type buildings will officially break the ice during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, ushered in the peak of development.
Although there are still some problems in the development of the domestic assembly-type construction industry, it is promoting the strength of the whole country and creating favorable conditions for the development of the entire industry and the early maturity of the market.
Analysis of Typical Development Model of Prefabricated Building Industry
In the final analysis, "assembled building" leads to the transformation of the construction industry, which also determines that the current "national housing industrialization base" and the prefabricated construction industrial park （base） are dominated by architectural enterprises, relying on the "big group model." "The internal formation of a complete industrial chain including investment, design, R & D and manufacturing of parts, engineering construction, etc., has a strong ability to integrate resources. Domestic leading companies include Yuanda Residential Industry Group, Heilongjiang Yuhui Construction Group, Hangxiao Steel Structure, Tianjin Housing Group, and Zhejiang Jinggong Steel Structure Group.
In addition to construction enterprises, domestic assembly-type construction-leading enterprises include real estate development enterprises （represented by Vanke）， large building materials enterprises （represented by Beixin Group）， and residential decoration enterprises （represented by Dongyi Risheng Home Decoration Group）。 ） and research and development design companies （represented by Beijing Architectural Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd. and Zhongmin Zhuyou Technology Group）。 The above enterprise groups serve the development of the national assembly-type construction industry with their own core technologies or products.
The development and growth of the prefabricated construction industry base requires the guidance and driving of large enterprises. In addition, although the development of the prefabricated building industry requires the coordination and matching of many industries, "assembled building" ultimately leads to the transformation of the construction industry. Therefore, it has complete industrial support such as investment, design, R&D and manufacturing of components, and construction of engineering. The ability of construction and construction enterprises has a stronger tie-making effect on industrial development.
How to develop a prefabricated construction industry
Construction of industrial system for prefabricated buildings
In order to further promote the technological development and engineering practice of the modernization of the construction industry, in 2015, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the "National Building Standard Design System for the Modernization of the Construction Industry", which constructed the modern building system in three parts: the main body, the interior and the exterior.
The core technology of building industrialization is mainly the main structure technology. It is difficult to realize industrialization without researching and solving the main structural technology system. The main structural products mainly include: beams, columns and shear walls of the supporting structure; walls, doors and windows and curtain walls of the vertical enclosing structure; roofing systems and slabs of the lateral enveloping structure; other building components such as stairs, balconies, etc. .
However, the development of industrialization of buildings must be coordinated and coordinated. In addition to considering the development of main structure products, it is necessary to take into account the new building materials and plan layout in the early stage of industrial development, and to create a modernization system for the construction industry in the coordinated development of construction and building materials industry. .
The path choice for the development of the assembly-type construction industry
The development of the general industrial industry must rely on government promotion, market pull and leading. Although the development of the prefabricated construction industry has its inevitability, there are still problems such as increased costs and inadequate technical and technical support for policy, design and construction. The promotion depends on government promotion and policy tilt. At the same time, summarizing the experience of the development of existing industrial bases, it is known that similar industrial bases with good growth generally have leading industries with strong advantages and distinctive features and powerful leading enterprises. This can summarize the following development paths of the prefabricated construction industry: First, take the government project as the main body to do the pilot project, and accumulate relevant implementation experience; write the land with government subsidies, policy inclination, and "assembled buildings". The contract will be used to cultivate the advanced market and promote the market to mature. Secondly, the market demand combines the regional development conditions to create a characteristic industrial chain with outstanding advantages, and coordinate the development of assembly-type building products （such as fabricated wall parts, cement-based parts, "Digital, fabricated" residential decoration, etc.）； Third, the introduction or cultivation of prefabricated building leading enterprises with resource integration capabilities, leading the development of local industries with leading effects.
At present, the prefabricated construction industry across the country has just entered the initial stage, and there are still few successful experiences. The policies or plans issued by various localities are mostly aimed at "assembled buildings" rather than "assembled building industries", which is reflected in the more emphasis on prefabricated buildings. The construction of base and parts manufacturing capabilities, the construction of industrial sectors is not perfect, and the development route and grasping hand for implementation are insufficient. The construction advantages of fabricated buildings cannot be fully utilized. In the next step of development, the park or base led by the prefabricated construction industry should focus on building a complete industrial system with industry support, outstanding features, and orderly and orderly from the beginning of the industrial planning. Based on the actual situation and standing high, explore suitable local assembly. A new model for the development of the construction industry.
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